Tawheed (Monotheism) is the fundamental principle of Islam on which all other principles, rules and pillars are based. The aspect of Tawheed emanates from the Shahada "There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is His servant and Messenger". It is this declaration that forms the dividing line between Iman (belief) and Kufr (disbelief).
Tawheed is the realisation of Allah (SWT) in all actions, verbal and physical. The essentials of which if negated or denied, leads to disbelief.
Tawheed al-Asmaa wa al-Sifaat
This is the belief that Allah (SWT) is one without similitude in His names and attributes. Allah (SWT) must be referred to in the manner He and His Messenger (SAW) have described Him. Allah (SWT)’s attributes and names must be taken in the absolute sense, free from human deficiencies of interpretation. Only Allah (SWT) is Al-Hakim, Al-Rahman, Al-Malik, Al-Haq. There are certain names of Allah that must be known and understood by necessity. These are:
• Al-Khaliq-nearest meaning ‘the Creator’.
• Al-Raziq -nearest meaning ‘the Provider’.
• Al-Ahad-nearest meaning ‘the One’.
• Al-Muhyi wa al-Mumeet-nearest meaning ‘the Giver and Taker of life’.
• Al-Muqaddir-nearest meaning ‘the One who controls Fate and Decree’.
• Al-Amir-nearest meaning ‘the Commander’.
Is the belief that Allah (SWT) is One without partner in His dominion. He is Lord and Sustainer of the universe in all matters of creation, planning and controlling, i.e. the Creator. Tawheed al-Rububiyah is based on the fundamental concept that Allah (SWT) alone caused all things to exist. Allah (SWT) sustains and maintains the creation and He (SWT) is independent from His creation. Allah (SWT) says;
"Allah is the Creator of all things and He is the agent on which all things depend." [Quran 39:62]
"Allah created you and whatever you do." [Quran 37:96]
"And no calamity strikes except by Allah’s permission." [Quran 64:11]
Allah (SWT) says:
"The rule (Command) belongs to none but Allah" [Quran 12:40]
"To Him belongs the Creating and the Commanding." [Quran 7:54]
o the word ‘Ahad’, Allah (
SWT) says: "S
ay: He is Ahad" [Quran 112:1]
In The term ‘Ahad’ is unique since it was never used prior to revelation. In the revelation it was used by Allah (SWT) to describe Himself. To simplify the term to mean Allah (SWT) is ‘One’ is a gross misrepresentation. This attribute of Allah (SWT) does not merely encompass a number. Man with his limitations can never comprehend the term ‘Ahad’. Similarly, Allah (SWT)’s attribute, Al-Rahman, ‘The Merciful’, is not mercy as we limited humans understand. Allah (SWT)’s Rahma is beyond human comprehension.
Allah (SWT) states;
If we start applying human interpretations to Allah (SWT)’s attributes, in essence what we are doing is assigning human attributes to Allah (SWT). This is contrary to the fact that He is independent from His creation.